Restructuring maternal services during the covid-19 pandemic: Early results of a scoping review for non-infected women. (A–C) Total time spent in wake (A), wake episode duration (B), and wake episode number (C) of THM and wild-type mice. Similarly, the most commonly observed EEG abnormality in human eclampsia is generalized or focal slowing of EEG [28, 58, 59], and this abnormal EEG normalizes after the release from hypertension . PAH mice utilize the “species barrier” between humans and mice in terms of angiotensinogen processing by renin. The NREMS δ density tended to be lower in postpartum PAH mice (Figure 6D). International Institute for Integrative Sleep Medicine (WPI-IIIS), University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan. I have a fancy mouse, Hilda, who is currently pregnant. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have been no published studies on sleep/wakefulness during pregnancy in mice. EEG spectrum analysis during the course of pregnancy in wild-type mice. Spike-and-wave discharges were observed in 50% of PAH mice. However, blood pressures higher than the upper limit of cerebral vascular autoregulation can lead to disruption of the BBB and vasogenic edema, eventually resulting in hypertensive encephalopathy . EEG or EMG signals were amplified using a bioamplifier (#AB-611J, Nihon Koden), filtered (EEG: 0.3–300 Hz; EMG: 30–300 Hz), digitized at a sampling rate of 250 Hz, and displayed using LabView (National Instruments)-based custom-made software. (D) Representative daily EEG spectrogram during mid and late pregnancy and postpartum in a PAH mouse. Behavior House mice walk, run and stand on all fours. Although we did not examine the fertility rate of THM in detail, we conjecture that chronic hypertension or enhanced renin–angiotensin system may decrease the fertility of THM. 2. She may be more likely to abandon or even cannibalize her babies. How a pregnant mouse’s microbes influence offspring’s brain development – new study offers clues September 23, 2020 2.03pm EDT Helen Vuong , University of California, Los Angeles In addition to the physical effects of the growing uterus and embryos during pregnancy, hormonal changes may affect sleep/wake behaviors during pregnancy. Changes in types of behaviour and how long mice spend doing particular behaviours can indicate that a mouse is in pain, or distress, or is suffering. (A–C) Total time spent in wake (A), wake episode duration (B), and wake episode number (C) before, during early and mid pregnancy, and postpartum in PAH mice. They can stand on the hind legs, as well, and are supported by the tail, which also provides balance while in motion. Olmesartan-administered PAH mice had a systolic blood pressure of approximately 120 mm Hg, which does not affect the integrity of the BBB . This dosage of olmesartan decreases the systolic blood pressure of PAH mice to approximately 120 mm Hg [26, 27]. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM. Haruna Komiya, MD, Chika Miyoshi, PhD, Kanako Iwasaki, BSc, Noriko Hotta-Hirashima, MS, Aya Ikkyu, MS, Satomi Kanno, Takato Honda, BSc, Masahiko Gosho, PhD, Hiromi Hamada, MD, PhD, Toyomi Satoh, MD, PhD, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, PhD, Hiromasa Funato, MD, PhD, Masashi Yanagisawa, MD, PhD, Sleep/Wake Behaviors in Mice During Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Associated Hypertensive Mice, Sleep, Volume 41, Issue 3, March 2018, zsx209, https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsx209. PAH mice showed normal REMS characterized by θ wave and muscle atonia during late pregnancy, but the total REMS time drastically decreased compared with PAH mice during mid pregnancy and pregnant wild-type mice. Total time spent in wakefulness, NREMS, and REMS was derived by summing the total number of 20-s epochs in each state. Neuroimaging studies of eclampsia patients revealed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, which refers to reversible vasogenic cerebral edema in the posterior region of the cerebral cortex accompanied by acute neuropsychiatric symptoms [28–31]. Endometrial Receptivity and Embryo Implantation in Carnivores-Commonalities and Differences with Other Mammalian Species. Physiol Rev 98: 1805–1908, 2018. In addition, the administration of olmesartan alleviated sleep/wake behavior abnormalities of PAH mice during late pregnancy such as general slowing of EEG, loss of the circadian change in sleep/wakefulness, and a drastic reduction in REMS. (D–F) Total time spent in NREM sleep (NREMS) (D), NREMS episode duration (E), and NREMS episode number (F). however, her breathing is very labored and has been for a few days. Thus, increased estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy may work to enhance wakefulness. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. In addition, we failed to obtain pregnant female THM and thus could not examine sleep/wake behaviors of pregnant THM compared with PAH mice. A dam uses olfactory cues in her milk and urine to establish a unique social identity for her litter. the mouse strains produced are genetically well defi ned. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Despite the longer total NREMS time during late pregnancy, the NREMS episode duration during late pregnancy was shorter than that before and during early pregnancy (F = 5.168, df = 4, p = .003; Figure 2E). House females continuously with the sire, or house pregnant females together, or house a pregnant female with a non-pregnant female. In PAH mice, the number of dye leakages was 4.5 ± 0.96 (mean ± SEM). In this study, we examined sleep/wakefulness in female C57BL/6 mice during pregnancy. Appropriate company for mice. EEG signals were subjected to a fast Fourier transform analysis from 1 to 30 Hz with a 1-Hz bin using MATLAB (MathWorks)-based custom software. (B) δ-Densities of all epochs of nonpregnant PAH (normotensive) mice (n = 6), PAH mice (n = 6), and olmesartan-administered PAH mice (n = 5) during late pregnancy. There was no significant difference in NREMS δ density before, during, and after pregnancy (Figure 3D). Fragmented sleep may be due to spontaneous movements of the embryos in the uterus and/or the pressure of the growing uterus on neighboring tissues and organs. This study also proposes that PAH mice may be an animal model of eclampsia. Studies have found that some mouse models of autism make fewer squeaks than controls do. Since PAH mice do not raise newborn pups and ignore them, we removed the newborn pups. (C) Power density during REMS before, during, and after pregnancy. The present study also supports PAH mice as an animal model for eclampsia, based on seizures, altered sleep/wakefulness, fewer spontaneous activities, and high perinatal mortality. In summary, the present study revealed a similarity in the sleep changes during pregnancy between humans and mice [6, 7], which provides a basis for future studies on sleep regulation in animal models for human diseases during pregnancy. A playful chase is usually also a quieter chase; mice in a squabble tend to be more vocal. Thus, the acute and severe increase in blood pressure may solely be responsible for the BBB disruption in PAH mice and subsequently lead to abnormal sleep/wake behaviors. In humans and other mammals, sleep is altered during pregnancy. 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